Numerous shorebirds belonging to the family Scolopacidae (order Charadriiformes), which also includes the woodcocks and the snipes. The name sandpiper refers particularly to several species of small to middle-sized birds, about 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 inches) long, that throng sea beaches and inland mud flats during migration. Sandpipers have moderately long bills and legs, long, narrow wings, and fairly short tails. Their colouring often consists of a complicated “dead-grass” pattern of browns, buffs, and blacks on the upperparts, with white or cream colouring below. They are frequently paler in autumn than in spring. Some species have distinguishing features, such as speckled breasts, white rump bands, or contrasting throat patches, but their general appearance is similar and they are notoriously difficult to identify. Most puzzling are the smallest sandpipers, known as peep, stint, or oxeyes. Most of these, formerly divided among the genera Erolia, Ereunetes, and Crocethia, are now placed in the broad genus Calidris.